Post Graduate Medical Education in India
Doctor of Medicine (M.D., from the Latin Medicinae Doctor meaning Doctor of Medicine/Teacher of Medicine") is a terminal degree for physicians and surgeons in most cases after obtaining a bachelor's degree (MBBS). In other countries, such as India, Ireland, and the United Kingdom, M.D. is a research degree which is equivalent to a Ph.D.
In Britain, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, India, and many British Commonwealth nations, the medical degree is instead the MBBS (MB BCh BAO, MBChB, MBBChir, BMBCh, MBBCh, BMBS, BMed, BM, etc.) and, thus, the M.D. is a higher level of attainment in these countries.
The MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery) degree represents the first (graduation) level of training required to be licensed as a physicians, and the MS or MD degree is a higher postgraduate degree, representative of specialty training.
The equivalent training in the US or Canada would be completion of a medical (post-graduate) degree. Eligibility for the MS or MD course is restricted to medical graduates holding the MBBS degree. The MBBS course is for 5½ years, and training is obtained in medical disciplines (e.g.: Internal Medicine, Radiology, Pathology, etc.).
After three years of study and the successful completion of an examination, which includes both theoretical and practical elements, in a pre-clinical or clinical subject of a non-surgical nature the candidate receives MD degree, whereas in a pre-clinical or clinical subject of a surgical nature i.e., Anatomy, General Surgery, Orthopaedics and Gynaecology the candidate receives the equivalent degree Master of Surgery (MS).
Post Graduate Medical Courses
MD (Doctor of Medicine)
This program is 3 years course that leads to postgraduate degree in medicine. Doctors possessing MBBS degree are eligible to for this course. This program is a specialized program in general medicine. A doctor after successful completion of this course is eligible to work as a Physician.
MS (Master of Surgery)
This program is 3 years course that leads to postgraduate degree in surgery. Doctors possessing MBBS degree are eligible to for this course. A doctor after successful completion of this course is eligible to work as Surgeon.
Post Graduate Diploma
Post Graduate diploma program in medicine is offered by various medical colleges or institutions across the country for MBBS degree holders. The duration of the program varies from 2 to 3 years.
Super Specialty Courses
DM / MCh
DM is a super specialty program in medicine of 2 to 3 years duration. The entry requirement for this course is MD (Doctor of Medicine)
M.Ch is a 2 years super specialty program in surgery. The entry requirement for this course is MS (Master of Surgery)
GOAL of Post Graduate Medical Education
The GOAL of Post Graduate Eedical Education shall be to Produce Competent Specialists and/or Medical Teachers.
- Who shall recognize the Health needs of the Community and carry out Professional Obligations Ethically by keeping the objectives of the National Health Policy.
- Who shall have mastered most of the Competencies, Pertaining to the Speciality, that are required to be practiced at the secondary and the tertiary levels of the Health Care Delivery System.
- Who shall be aware of the Contemporary Advance and Developments in their concerned Discipline or Specialization.
- Who shall have acquired the Spirit of Scientific Inquiry and is oriented to the Principles of Research Methodology & Epidemiology.
- Who shall have acquired the Basic Skills in teaching of the Medical & Para-Medical Professionals
Objectives of Post Graduate Medical Educations
At the end of the Post Graduate Training in the Concerned Discipline or Specialization, the student shall be able to :
- Recognize the Importance of the Concerned Speciality in the context of the Health needs of the Community and the National Priorities in the Health Sector.
- Practice the Concerned Speciality Ethically and in step with the Principles of Primary Health Care.
- Demonstrate sufficient understanding of the Basic Sciences relevant to the Concerned Speciality.
- Identify Social, Economic, Environmental, Biological & Emotional determinants of health in a given case, and take them into account while planning Therapeutic, Rehabilitative, Preventive & Primitive measure/strategies.
- Diagnose & manage majority of the conditions in the specialty concerned on the basis of Clinical Assessment, Appropriately selected and conducted Investigations.
- Plan and advice measures for the Prevention & Rehabilitation of Patients suffering from Disease and Disability related to the Specialty.
- Demonstrate skills in documentation of individual case details as well as morbidity and mortality rate relevant to the assigned situation.
- Demonstrate empathy and humane approach towards patients and their families and exhibit interpersonal behavior in accordance with the societal norms and expectations.
- Play the Assigned Role in the implementation of National Health Programme, Effectively & Responsibly.
- Organize and supervise the chosen/assigned Health Care Services demonstrating adequate Managerial Skills in the clinic/hospital or the field situation.
- Develop skills as a self-directed learner, recognize continuing education needs, select and use appropriate learning resources.
- Demonstrate Competence in Basic Concepts of Research Methodology & Epidemiology, and be able to critically analyze relevant Published Research Literature.
- Develop skills in using Educational Methods & techniques as applicable to the teaching of Medical/Nursing students, General Physicians and Para-Medical Health Workers.
- Function as an Effective Leader of a Health Team engaged in Health-Care, Research & Training.
Components of the Post Graduate Curriculum
The major components of the Pos Ggraduate Curriculum shall be :
- Theoretical Knowledge.
- Practical & Clinical Skills.
- Writing Thesis/Research Articles.
- Publishing Scientific Articles in Accredited Journals.
- Improving Attitudes including cCommunication Skills.
- Training in Research Methodology, Medical Ethics including Medico Legal Aspects.
The students undergoing Post Graduate Courses shall be exposed to the following :
- Basics of Sstatistics to understand and critically evaluate published Research Paper.
- Lectures related to Human Behavior Studies.
- Basic understanding of Pharmaco-Economics.
- Introduction to the Non-linear Mathematics.
Eligibility Criteria for Admission in Post Graduate Medical Courses
A candidate should Qualify an Entrance Examination as per the existing Rules of the Medical Council of India (MCI).
- The candidate must have completed MBBS from an institution or university recognized by Medcial Council of India and must have completed or completing their internship by April of the Admission Year.
- The candidate must have full registration with the Medical Council India (MCI) or any of the State Medical Council or should obtain the same within one month from the date of admission, failing which the admission of the candidate shall be cancelled.
- All candidates will have to appear in a PG Entrance Examination. The Entrance Test will be conducted by the Examination Section of the Institute of Medicine.
- The candidate must secure 50% marks separately in each paper for the eligibility to be placed in the merit list.
- As per the Post Graduate Regulation 2000 of Medical Council of India, the minimum percentage of marks in the competitive entrance test for eligibility for admission to Post Graduate Courses shall be 50% for General Category candidates and 40% for the candidates belonging to SC, ST and OBC.
- Up to 50% of the seats can be made available to the candidate nominated by the Ministry of Health, However such nominated candidates will be required to appear in the entrance examination and secure at least 50% of marks in each paper to qualify to enter the course. (In case the candidates nominated by Ministry of Health do not become eligible for admission the seats vacated will be given to eligible candidate from the free competition section.).
- Candidate registered for the course will not be allowed to enter other Post Graduate Program till the completion of the course. Otherwise she/he will have to vacate the MD seat.
Selection of Students for Post Graduate Medical Courses
The Selection of students for the Post Graduate Medical Course shall be made based strictly on merit as decided by the Entrance Examination conducted by the competent authority approved by the Government of Respective States or University of Health Sciences and as per Guidelines of the Medical Council of India (MCI).
A candidate on admission to the MD/MS/Diploma course shall apply to the University for Registration
- By making a formal application in the prescribed format.
- Original degree certificate and mark lists of qualifying examination.
- Original Council registration certificate.
- Allotment letter from the competent authority who conducted the Entrance
- Examination/ allotment letter from the Principal in the case of NRI candidates.
- Equivalency and migration certificate wherever needed.
- Original SSLC/equivalent certificate.
- The fees prescribed for the course.
Duration of Post Graduation Medical Course
For MD/MS - 3 yrs.
For Diploma - 2 yrs.
Diploma holders pursuing MD/MS in the same specialty shall be 2 years.
Post Graduate Medical Course Specialties & Subspecialties
|MS Anatomy||MD Biochemistry||MD Physiology|
|MD Community Medicine||MDForensic Medicine||MD Microbiology|
|MD Pathology||MD Pharmacology|
|MD Anesthesiology||MD Cardiology||MD Dermatology|
|MD Emergency Medicine||MS E.N.T||MD Forensic Medicine|
|MD General Medicine||MS General Surgery||MD Nuclear Medicine|
|MS Obstetrics & Gynaecology (OBG)||MS Orthopaedics||MS Ophthalmology|
|MD Paediatrics||MD Pulmonary Medicine (TB & Chest)||MD Psychiatric Medicine|
|MD Radio-Diagnosis or Radiology||MD Radio Therapy|
Specializations in Different Streams of Medical
Specializations in different streams of medicine are available in a number of disciplines. We are discussing in general a few of them here.
An MBBS doctor who specializes in medicine and acquires an MD (Doctor of Medicine) degree becomes physician. A physician job is to understand patient’s problems, study the results of clinical tests, diagnosing the illness and then prescribing the course of treatment.
A medical doctor who specializes in Pediatrics is called Pediatrician. A pediatrician deals with the children’s health from newborn to adolescents. A pediatrician diagnoses and conducts treatment of the disease peculiar to children.
Cardiology deals with disorders of the heart. A Cardiologist performs specialized work like angiography, angioplasty etc.
Obstetrics and Gynecology:
Obstetricians and Gynecologists diagnose and treat the disorders in female reproductive organs. Obstetricians and Gynecologists also conduct operations like caesarian, laparoscopies and hysteroscopies. These specialists also deal with ovarian cancer and other illnesses related to reproductive systems.
Neurosurgery is the surgical discipline focused on treating the central and peripheral nervous system. Neurosurgical conditions include primarily brain and spinal cord disorders. The medical doctors specialized in this field are called Neurosurgeons.
Orthopedic surgeons deal with illness of the skeletal structure. They diagnose and treat fractures and disorders of the skeletal frame. An orthopedic suggests therapies and exercise for patients which are conducted by Physiotherapists.
Ophthalmologists diagnose and conduct treatment for the diseased human eye. Ophthalmologists are trained to conduct surgeries of the eye, operations for the removal of cataract, treatment of glaucoma and other such diseases and infections of the eye.
A medical doctor who has specialized in Psychiatry is called Psychiatrist. A psychiatrist treats mental, emotional or behavioral disorders.